Passive

🔴مجهول


1⃣Passives 
Passive structures and verb forms

✅active and passive structures 
مقایسه کنید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-They built this house in 1986. معلوم
This house was built in 1986. مجهول

-Iranians speak Persian. معلوم
Persian is spoken in Iran. مجهول

-A friend of ours is repairing the roof. معلوم 
The roof is being repaired by a friend of ours. مجهول

-This book will change your life. معلوم
Your life will be changed by this book. مجهول

وقتی A یه چیزی رو برای B انجام میده, به دفعات دوراه برای صحبت کردن راجع به اون وجود داره. اگه بخوایم انجام دهنده کار فاعل باشه, یه فعل معلوم استفاده میکنیم:built/speak/is repairing.
اگه بخوایم (دریافت کننده کار) فاعل باشه, از was built/is spoken/is being repaired/will be changed استفاده میکنیم.

دربیشتر موارد،فاعل یه فعل معلوم دربیان جمله مجهول برابری نمیکنه. اگه بیانش اجباری باشه, معمولا دربیاناتی اتفاق می افته که by دارند,به اسم "agent" یا عامل گفته میشه.
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
This house was built in 1486 by Sir Esmaeil Danayi. 

✅passive verb forms 
معمولا اشکال مجهول یه فعل رو با استفاده از زمانهای افعال کمکی و قسمت سوم فعل(p.p) میسازیم.


2⃣Passives 
Agent

دریه جمله مجهول, معمولا از by برای معرفی عامل (agent) استفاده میکنیم, شخص یا چیزی که کاری رو انجام میده, یا پیامد هایی که اتفاق می افتن. 
⭐اگرچه, این عامل هایی که بهشون اشاره شد, تنها حدود 20 درصد از جملات مجهول هستن⭐
مثالها ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-All the trouble was caused by your mother. 

-These carpets are made by children who work twelve hours a day. 

چند تا از pp ها میتونن بیشتر از فعل شبیه صفت باشن, برای مثال:shocked/worried/frightened.
بعد از اینا به دفعات از سایر حروف اضافه بجای by استفاده میکنیم. 
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇
-I was shocked at/by your attitude. 

-We were worried about/by her silence. 

-Are frightened of spiders? 

وقتی راجع به وسیله ای که عامل برای انجام کار ازش استفاده کرده, صحبت میکنم,از with استفاده میکنیم 
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
He was shot (by the policeman) with a riffle.


3⃣Passives 
When do we use the passive structures? 

✅interest in the action 
به دفعات وقتی میخوایم راجع به یه عمل و نه کسی یاچیزی که اون عمل رو انجام داده صحبت کنیم، ساختار مجهولی رو انتخاب میکنیم.
مجهول بدون عامل در نوشته های علمی و فرهنگی رایج هستش
به این دلیل⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-Those Pyramids were built around 400 AD. 

-The many books have been written about the Second World War. 

-The results have not yet been analysed. 

✅putting the news at the end 
به دفعات ترجیح میدیم جمله مون رو با چیزی که ازقبل میشناسیم یا راجع بهش صحبت کردیم شروع کنیم, و برای گذاشتن خبر در آخر جمله.
این یکی دیگه از دلایل انتخاب ساختار مجهولی میباشد
مقایسه کنید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-Susan is painting my portrait.(active verb so that the "news" -the portrait- can go at the end.)

-Nice picture.~Yes, It was painted by my grandmother. (passive verb so that the "news" -the painter- can go at the end.)

✅keeping the same subject 
برای ادامه صحبت راجع به همون شخص یا همون چیز،ممکنه لازم باشه از مجهول به معلوم تغییر حالت بدیم و یا بلعکس
به این متن دقت کنید⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
He waited for two hours,then he was seen by a doctor;then he was sent back to the waiting room.He sat there for another two hours-by this time he was getting angry.Then he was taken upstairs and examined by a specialist, after which he had to wait for another hour before he was allowed to go home. (More natural than He waited for two hours,then a doctor saw him....) 

✅putting behavior expressions at the end 
بیانات بلندتر و رفتاری به دفعات به آخر جمله میرن, و این همچنین میتونه یه دلیل برای انتخاب ساختار مجهولی باشه
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-I was annoyed by Merila wanting to tell everybody what to do. 
(More natural than Merila wanting to tell everybody what to do annoyed me-the phrase Merila. ...do would make a very long subject.)

✅meaning and grammar 
معنی و گرامر نمیتونن همیشه باهم باشن, همه افعال معلوم معنی معلوم ندارن؛برای نمونه اگه بخوایم بگیم یه نفر یه چیزی رو دریافت میکنه یا تحمل میکنه, واقعا داریم میگیم که یه چیزی برای اون انجام شده.
بعضی از افعال معلوم بهتره به افعال مجهول و یا انعکاسی زبان مقصد ترجمه بشن:My shoes are wearing out;She is sitting;Suddenly the door opened.
و بعضی از افعال مجهول انگلیسی بهتره به افعال معلوم و یا انعکاسی زبان مقصد ترجمه بشن؛I was born in 1992;English is spoken here.
بعضی از افعال هم میتونن در یک معنی و در هردوحالت معلوم و مجهول استفاده بشن, برای مثال:
to worry/to be worried - to drown/to be drowned 
بعضی وقتها مصدرهای مجهول و معلوم میتونن درمعنی خیلی مشابهی, استفاده بشن, برای مثال:
There is a lot of work to do/to be done


4⃣Passives 
Verbs with two objects 

بسیاری از افعال مثل:give/send/show/lend/pay/promise/refuse/tell/offer میتونن بادوتا مفعول همراه بشن, یه مفعول غیرمستقیم و یه مفعول مستقیم, اینا معمولا به یه شخص(مفعول غیرمستقیم)و به یه چیز(مفعول مستقیم) مربوط میشن.
دوتا ساختار ممکنه
A.verb + Indirect object + direct object 
مثال⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-She gave her sister the car.

-I had already shown the policeman puya's photo.

B.verb + direct object + preposition + Indirect object 
مثال⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-She gave the car to her sister.

-I had already shown Puya's photo to the policeman. 

هردو این ساختارها میتونن مجهول باشن
ببینید:
درساختار A مفعول غیرمستقیم میشه فاعل فعل مجهول
-Her sister was given the car.
-The policeman had already been shown Puya's photo. 

درساختار B مفعول مستقیم میتونه فاعل فعل مجهول بشه 
-The car was given to her sister.
-Puya's photo had already been shown to the policeman. 

انتخاب از بین این دوتا ساختار مجهولی ممکنه به چیزایی که قبلا گفته شده بستگی داشته باشه و یا اون چیزی که لازمه بعد از اون یکی درجمله قرار بگیره.
ساختار A رایج تر از ساختار B هستش.
مثالهای بیشتر⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-I have just been sent a whole lot of information. 

-You were lent ten thousand pounds last year.

-The visitors were shown a collection of old manuscripts. 

-They are being paid a lot of money for doing very little. 

-He was refused a visa because he had been in prison. 

-We will never be told the real truth. 
-How much have you been offered?

در ساختار B حروف اضافه بعضی وقتها قبل از ضمایر مفعولی غیرمستقیم از قلم می افتن
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
This watch was given (to) me by my father.

افعال Explain و Suggest نمیتونن درساختار A استفاده بشن
مثالها ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-The problem was explained to the children. (But Not The children were explained the problem.)

-A meeting place was suggested to us. (But Not We were suggested a meeting place.)

5⃣Passives 
Verbs with prepositions 

✅look at /listen to /pay for etc
مفعول های افعالی که با حرف اضافه همراهند (prepositional verbs) میتونن به فاعل در ساختار مجهولی تبدیل بشن.
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-We have looked at the plan carefully.➡The plan has been carefully looked at. 

-Nobody listens to her.➡She is never listened to. 

-Somebody has paid for your meal.➡Your meal has been paid for. 

📍نکته اینکه حرف اضافه همراه با فعل نمیتونه از قلم بیفته 
⬇⬇⬇⬇
I don't like to be shouted at. (Not I don't like to be shouted.)

✅throw stones at/steal a bicycle from /give flowers to etc 
اگه قبلا یه مفعول مستقیم وجود داشته باشه, مفعول دوم (بعد از حرف اضافه) نمیتونه فاعل مجهول بشه
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-They threw stones at him➡Stones were thrown at him.(But Not He was thrown stones at.)

-They stole a bicycle from him➡A bicycle was stolen from him. (But Not He was stolen a bicycle from.)

-They poured water on us.➡Water was poured on us. (But Not We were poured water on.)

📍نکته اینکه اسمها و یا ضمایر ملکی.نمیتونن به فاعل مجهول تبدیل بشن
مثال⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇ 
-They called Mr Akbari's name.➡Mr Akbari's name was called. (But Not Mr Akbari was name called.)

-I broke her mirror➡Her mirror was broken. (But Not She was mirror broken.)

✅give/send etc
افعالی مثل give/send/lend میتونن دوتا مفعول بدون حرف اضافه داشته باشن (They give him a gold watch.).

6⃣Passives 
It was thought that.....

✅clause objects:Nobody thought that she was a spy
بعضی از جملات, بخشی از جمله رو بعنوان مفعولشون دارن. و اینا معمولا نمیتونن به فاعل جملات مجهول تبدیل بشن
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-Nobody thought that she was a spy. (But Not That she was a spy was thought by nobody.)

-We felt that he was the right man for the job.(But Not That he was....was felt.)

-The newspaper say that his company is in trouble. (But Not That his company is in trouble is said....)

هرچند که ساختارهای مجهول به دفعات با نقطه شروع It بعنوان فاعل ممکنه
دقت کنید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-It was thought that she was a spy. 

-It was felt that he was the right man for the job. 

-It is said that his company is in trouble. 

✅infinitive objects:They decided to....
چند تا فعل که همراه با مصدرها میان(agree/decide) همچنین میتونن در ابتدای ساختارهای مجهول همراه It بیان.
دقت کنید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-They decided to meet at twelve. ➡It was decided to meet at twelve. 

-We agreed to open a new branch. ➡It was agreed to open a new branch. 

اگرچه افعال زیادی هستن که نمیتونن به این شکل بیان
مثلا⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-We hope to make a profit this year.(But Not It is hoped to make. ...)

7⃣Passives 
He is believed to be....

✅object + infinitive:He asked me to send....
بسیاری از افعال میتونن با مفعول + مصدر بیان.
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-He asked me to send a stamped addressed envelope. 

-We choose Felicity to be the Carnival Queen. 

دربیشتر موارد, ازاین ساختارها میشه مجهول ساخت 
به اینصورت ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-I was asked to send a stamped addressed envelope. 

-Felicity was chosen to be the Carnival Queen. 

-We were told not to come back. 

-They are allowed to visit Hamid once a week.

✅verbs of thinking, feeling and saying 
با افعالی مث think/feel/believe/know etc ;ساختار مفعول + مصدر نسبتا رسمی و به دفعات غیرمعمول هست.
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
They believe him to be dangerous. (More natural than They believe that....)

هرچند ساختار مجهولی(He is believed to be. ...)رایج هست, و بارها در گزارشات خبری اتفاق می افته 
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-He is believed to be dangerous. 

-Morteza is thought to be in China.

-She is known to have been married before. 

-It is considered to be the finest cathedral in Scotland. 

نکته اینکه با Say ساختار مصدری فقط با مجهول ممکنه
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
His company is said to be in trouble. (But Not They say his company to be in trouble.)

✅hear/see/make and help
این افعال میتونن در ساختارهای معلوم با مفعول + مصدر بدون to همراه بشن.
در ساختارهای مجهول مصدر با to استفاده میشه.
مقایسه کنید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-I saw him come out of the house. 
He was seen to come out of the house. 

-They made him tell them everything.
He was made to tell them everything. 

-They helped him (to) get out of the country. 
He was helped to get out of the country. 

✅preparatory there
همراه با بعضی از افعال (think/feel/report/presume/understand) ساختار مجهولی با There بعنوان یک فاعل ابتدایی ممکنه
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-There are thought to be more than 3000 different languages in the world. (=It is thought that there are....)

-There was said to be disagreement between Ministers. 

✅perfect, progressive and passive Infinitives 

یک فعل مجهول میتونه با مصدرهای مجهول, استمراری و کامل همراه باشه
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-He is believed to have crossed the frontier last night. 

-I was said to be waiting outside the station at 6 o'clock.

-The hostage are expected to be released today. 

✅exceptions:wanting and liking 
افعالی که به wanting/liking و ایده های مشابه اینا اشاره میکنن, معمولا در ساختارهای مجهول نمیتونن با مصدرهای مربوطه همراه بشن
مثال⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-Everybody wanted Amin to be the manager. (But Not Amin was wanted to be the manager.)

-We like our staff to say what they think.(But Not Our staff was liked to say what they think. )


8⃣Passives 
He was considered a genius 

بعد از چندتا از افعال, مفعول مستقیم میتونه با یه "مکمل مفعولی" , یه اسم و یا یک صفت که مفعول رو تشریح یا رده بندی میکنه, همراه بشه.
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-Queen Victoria considered him a genius. 

-They elected Mr Obama president. 

-We all regarded Karim as an expert. 

-Most people saw him as a sort of clown. 

-The other children called her stupid. 

-You have made the house beautiful. 

دربخشی ازجملات که مجهول هستند, اینا مکمل های فاعلی هستن و بعد از فعل میان
ببینید ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇
-He was considered a genius by Queen Victoria. 

-Mr Obama was elected President. 

-Karim was regarded as an expert. 

-He was seen as a sort of clown. 

-She was called stupid by the other children. 

-The house has been made beautiful.